Publications

(link to Google Scholar profile)

91. "Carrier-gas Assisted Vapor Deposition for Highly Tunable Morphology of Halide Perovskite Thin Films," C.P. Clark, B. Voigt, E.S. Aydil, R.J. Holmes, Sust. Energy & Fuels (Accepted) (2019).

90. "Formation of aligned periodic patterns during the crystallization of organic semiconductor thin films," J.S. Bangsund, T.R. Fielitz, T.J. Steiner, K. Shi, J.R. Van Sambeek, C.P. Clark, R.J. Holmes, Nature Mater., 18, 725 (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-019-0379-3

89. "Intrinsic measurements of exciton transport in photovoltaic cells," T. Zhang, D.B. Dement, V.E. Ferry, R.J. Holmes, Nature Comms., 10, 1156 (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09062-8

88. "Investigation of Excitonic Gates in Organic Semiconductor Thin Films," D Rai and R.J. Holmes, Phys. Rev. App., 11, 014048 (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.014048

87. "Lead-free double perovskites Cs 2 InCuCl 6 and (CH 3 NH 3) 2 InCuCl 6: electronic, optical, and electrical properties," H.Q. Pham, R.J. Holmes, E.S. Aydil, L. Gagliardi, Nanoscale, 11, 11173 (2019). DOI: 10.1039/C9NR01645G

86. "Measurement of the triplet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors," D Rai and R.J. Holmes, J. Mater. Chem. C, 7, 5695 (2019). DOI: 10.1039/C9TC00686A

85. "Improved stability in organic light‐emitting devices by mixing ambipolar and wide energy gap hosts," J.S. Bangsund, K.W. Hershey, D.C.K. Rathwell, H.Y. Na, J.H. Jeon, P. Trefonas, R.J. Holmes, J. Society for Information Display, 27, 434, (2019). DOI: 10.1002/jsid.761

2018

84. "Overcoming the trade-off between exciton dissociation and charge recombination in organic photovoltaic cells," T Zhang and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 113, 143302 (2018). DOI: 10.1063/1.5045351

83. "Enhancing energy transport in conjugated polymers," R.J. Holmes, Science, 260, 854 (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6009

82. "Decoupling Photocurrent Loss Mechanisms in Photovoltaic Cells Using Complementary Measurements of Exciton Diffusion," I.J. Curtin and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Energy. Mater., 8, 1702339 (2018). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201702339

81. "Computational Study of Structural and Electronic Properties of Lead-Free CsMI3 Perovskites (M = Ge, Sn, Pb, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba)," D. Ray, C. Clark, H.Q. Pham, J. Borycz, R.J. Holmes, E.S. Aydil, L. Gagliardi, J. Phys. Chem. C., 122, 7838 (2018). DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b00226

80. "Isolating Degradation Mechanisms in Mixed Emissive Layer Organic Light-Emitting Devices," J.S. Bangsund, K.W. Hershey, R.J. Holmes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 10, 5693 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b16643

2017

79. "Decoupling degradation in exciton formation and recombination during lifetime testing of organic light-emitting devices," K.W. Hershey, J.S. Bangsund, G. Qian, R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 111, 113301 (2017). DOI: 10.1063/1.4993618

78. "Photovoltage as a quantitative probe of carrier generation and recombination in organic photovoltaic cells," T. Zhang and R.J. Holmes, J. Mater. Chem. C, 5, 11885 (2018). DOI: 10.1039/C7TC04246A

77. "Effects of Additives on Crystallization in Thin Organic Films," T.R. Fielitz, C.M. Phenicie, R.J. Holmes, Cryst. Growth. Des., 17, 4522 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00880

76. "Unified Analysis of Transient and Steady‐State Electroluminescence–Establishing an Analytical Formalism for OLED Charge Balance," K.W. Hershey and R.J. Holmes, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 48, 115 (2017). DOI: 10.1002/sdtp.11576

75. "Impact of Thermal Annealing on Organic Photovoltaic Cells Using Regioisomeric Donor–Acceptor–Acceptor Molecules," T. Zhang, H. Han, Y. Zou, Y.C. Lee, H. Oshima, K.-T. Wong, R.J. Holmes, ACS Applied Mater. Interfaces, 9, 25418 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b05304

74. "Volume diffusion in purification by sublimation," N. Singh, T.E. Schwartzentruber, R.J. Holmes, E.L. Cussler, AIChE Journal, 63, 1757 (2017). DOI: 10.1002/aic.15691

73. "Probing dark exciton diffusion using photovoltage," T.K. Mullenbach, I.J. Curtin, T. Zhang, R.J. Holmes, Nature Comm., 8, 14215 (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14215

2016

72. "Unified analysis of transient and steady-state electrophosphorescence using exciton and polaron dynamics modeling," K.W. Herhsey, R.J. Holmes, J. App. Phys., 120, 195501 (2016). DOI: 10.1063/1.4966615

71. "Blue-Emitting Arylalkynyl Naphthalene Derivatives via a Hexadehydro-Diels–Alder Cascade Reaction," F. Xu, K.W. Hershey, R.J. Holmes, T.R. Hoye, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 138, 12739 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b07647

70. “Crystal morphology and growth in annealed rubrene thin films,” T.R. Fielitz and R.J. Holmes, Cryst. Growth and Des., 16, 4720 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00783

69. “Role of impurities in determining the exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors,” I.J. Curtin, D.W. Blaylock, and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 108, 163301 (2016). DOI: 10.1063/1.4945688

68. “Exciton Transport in an Organic Semiconductor Exhibiting Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence,” S.M. Menke and R.J. Holmes, J. Phys. Chem. C, 120, 8502 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b01679

67. Erratum - “Evaluating the Role of Energetic Disorder and Thermal Activation in Exciton Transport,” T.R. Fielitz, S.M. Menke and R.J. Holmes, J. Mater. Chem. C, 4, 7508 (2016).

66. “Evaluating the Role of Energetic Disorder and Thermal Activation in Exciton Transport,” S.M. Menke and R.J. Holmes, J. Mater. Chem. C, 4, 3437 (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6TC00525J

65. “Femtosecond to Nanosecond Excited State Dynamics of Vapor Deposited Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films,” B.W. Caplins, T.K. Mullenbach, R.J. Holmes, and D.A. Blank, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18, 11454 (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6CP00958A

64. "Temperature‐Dependent Bias Poling and Hysteresis in Planar Organo‐Metal Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic Cells," Y. Zou, R.J. Holmes, Advanced Energy Materials, Early View (2016). (Link to Adv. Energy Mater.)

63. "Effect of Rapid Pressurization on the Solubility of Small Organic Molecules," N.T. Morgan, T.C. Frank, R.J. Holmes, E.L. Cussler, Crystal Growth & Design, 16, 1404  (2016). (Link to CGD)

62. "Sublimation as a function of diffusion," G. Qian, N.T. Morgan, R.D.J. Froese, D.W. Blaylock, R.J. Holmes, E.L. Cussler, AIChE Journal, 62, 861  (2016). (Link to AIChE Journal)

2015

61. “Intermolecular Interactions Determine Exciton Lifetimes in Neat Films and Solid State Solutions of Metal-Free Phthalocyanine,” B.W. Caplins, T.K. Mullenbach, R.J. Holmes, D.A. Blank, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119 27340 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b09817

60. "Relating photocurrent, photovoltage, and charge carrier density to the recombination rate in organic photovoltaic cells," T.K. Mullenbach, R.J. Holmes, Applied Physics Letters 107, 123303 (2015). (Link to APL)

59. "Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells," Y. Zou and R.J. Holmes, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 7, 18306  (2015). (Link to ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces)

58. "Mechanism for the separation of organic semiconductors via thermal gradient sublimation," N.T. Morgan, Y. Zhang, M.L. Grandbois, B.M. Bell, R.J. Holmes, and E.L. Cussler, Org. Electron., 24, 212  (2015). (Link to Org. Electron.)

57. "The role of exciton ionization processes in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells," Y. Zou and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Energy Mater., 5, 1500019  (2015). (Link to Adv. Energy Mater.)

56. "Directing Energy Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Cells Using Interfacial Exciton Gates," S.M. Menke, T.K. Mullenbach and R.J. Holmes, ACS Nano, 9, 4543  (2015). (Link to ACS Nano)

55. "Energy-Cascade Organic Photovoltaic Devices Incorporating a Host–Guest Architecture," S.M. Menke and R.J. Holmes, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 7, 2912  (2015). (Link to ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces)

2014

54. "Interpreting impedance spectra of organic photovoltaic cells-extracting charge transit and recombination rates," T.K. Mullenbach, Y.Zou, J. Holst, R.J. Holmes, J. Appl. Phys., 116, 124513  (2014). (Link to J. Appl. Phys.)

53. "Depth profiling organic light-emitting devices by gas-cluster ion beam sputtering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," N.C. Erickson, S.N. Raman, J.S. Hammond, R.J. Holmes, Org. Electron., 15, 2988 (2014). (Link to Org. Electron.)

52. "Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer," S.M. Menke, C. Lindsay, R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 104, 243302 (2014). (Link to Appl. Phys. Lett.)

51. "7.9% efficient vapor-deposited organic photovoltaic cells based on a simple bulk heterojunction," Y. Zou, J. Holst, Y. Zhang, R.J. Holmes, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 12397 (2014). (Link to J. Mater. Chem. A)

50. "Engineering efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting devices," N.C. Erickson and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Func. Mater., 24, 6074 (2014). (Link to Adv. Func. Mater.)

49. "Organic Polaritons: Long Distance Relationships," (News and Views), R.J. Holmes, Nature Materials, 13, 669 (2014). (Link to Nature Materials)

48. "Understanding rate-limiting processes for the sublimation of small molecule organic semiconductors," N.T. Morgan, Y. Zhang, E. Molitor, B. Bell, R.J. Holmes, E.L. Cussler, AIChE Journal, 60, 1347 (2014). (Link to AIChE Journal)

47. "Exciton diffusion in organic photovoltaic cells," (Review) S.M. Menke and R.J. Holmes, Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 499 (2014). (Link to Energy Environ. Sci.)

2013

46. "Trapping Upconverted Energy in Neat Platinum Porphyrin Films via an Unexpected Fusion Mechanism," J. Hinke, T. Pundsack, W.A. Luhman, R.J. Holmes, and D.A. Blank, J. Chem. Phys., 139, 101102 (2013). (Link to J. Chem. Phys.)

45. "Influence of a MoOx interlayer on the open-circuit voltage in organic photovoltaic cells," Y. Zou and R. J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 103, 0533202 (2013) (Link to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

44. "Connecting Molecular Structure and Exciton Diffusion Length in Rubrene Derivatives," T.K. Mullenbach, K.A. McGarry, W.A. Luhman, C.J. Douglas, and R. J. Holmes, Adv. Mater., 25, 3689 (2013) (Link to Adv. Mater.).

43. "Investigating the Role of Emissive Layer Architecture on the Exciton Recombination Zone in Organic Light-Emitting Devices," N.C. Erickson and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Func. Mater., Published Online (Link to Adv. Func. Mater.).

42. "Tin naphthalocyanine complexes for infrared absorption in organic photovoltaic cells," R. Pandey, R.A. Kerner, S.M. Menke, J. Holst, K.V.B. Josyula, R.J. Holmes, Organic Electronics, 14, 804 (2013) (Link to Organic Electronics).

41. "Tailored exciton diffusion in organic photovoltaic cells for enhanced power conversion efficiency," S.M. Menke, W.A. Luhman, R. J. Holmes, Nature Materials, 12, 152 (2013) (Link to Nature Materials)

2012

40. "Tandem organic photodetectors with tunable, broadband response," S.M. Menke, R. Pandey, R. J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett, 101, 223301 (2012) (Link to Appl. Phys. Lett.)

39. "Long-range, photon-mediated exciton hybridization in an all-organic, one-dimensional photonic crystal," G.H. Lodden and R.J. Holmes, Phys. Rev. Lett., 109, 096401 (2012). (Link to Phys. Rev. Lett.)

38. "Efficient, bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells based on boron subphthalocyanine chloride-C70," R. Pandey, Y. Zou, and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 101, 033308 (2012). (Link  to Appl. Phys. Lett.)

37. "An all-gas-phase approach for the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,"
R.J. Anthony, K.-Y. Cheng, Z.C. Holman, R.J. Holmes, and U.R. Kortshagen, Nano Lett., 12, 2822 (2012). (Link to Nano Lett.)

36. "Diarylindenotetracenes via a cross-coupling/C-H functionalization cascade reaction: Electron donors for organic photovoltaic cells," X. Gu, W.A. Luhman, E. Yagodkin, R.J. Holmes and C.J. Douglas, Org. Letters, 14, 1390 (2012). (Link to Org. Letters)

35. "High transconductance organic thin film electrochemical transistors for driving low voltage red-green-blue active matrix organic light-emitting devices," D. Braga, N.C. Erickson, M. Renn, R.J. Holmes and C.D. Frisbie, Adv. Func. Mater., 22, 1623 (2012). (Link to Adv. Func. Mater.)

34. "Characterizing the charge collection efficiency in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells," R. Pandey and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 100, 083303 (2012). (Link to Appl. Phys. Lett.)

33. "Efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on nanocrystalline mixtures of boron subphthalocyanine chloride and C60," R. Pandey, A. Gunawan, K.A. Mkhoyan and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Func. Mater., 22, 617 (2012). (Link to Adv. Func. Mater.)

32. "Nanoporous Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derived from polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion templates," B.H. Jones, K.-Y. Cheng, R.J. Holmes, and T.P. Lodge, Macromolecules, 45, 599 (2012). (Link to Macromolecules).

2011

31. "Relating charge transport and performance in single-layer graded-composition organic light-emitting devices," N.C. Erickson and R.J. Holmes, J. Appl. Phys., 110, 084515 (2011). (Link to J. Appl. Phys.)

30. "Nanoporous polyethylene thin films templated by polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions: Evolution of morphology on non-neutral substrates," B.H. Jones, K.-Y. Cheng, R.J. Holmes, and T.P. Lodge, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3, 4101, (2011). (Link to ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces).

29. "Self-assembled plasmonic electrodes for high-performance organic photovoltaic cells," W.A. Luhman, S.H. Lee, T.W. Johnson, R.J. Holmes and S.-H. Oh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 103306 (2011). (Link to APL) Selected for the September 26, 2011 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, and the September 2011 issue of APL: Organic Electronics and Photonics.

28. "Polarization splitting in polariton electroluminescence from an organic semiconductor microcavity with metallic reflectors," G.H. Lodden and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233301 (2011). (Link to APL) Selected for the June 2011 issue of APL: Organic Electronics and Photonics.

27. "High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting Devices," K.-Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U.R. Kortshagen, and R.J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 11, 5 (2011). (Link to Nano Letters)

26. "Investigation of Energy Transfer in Organic Photovoltaic Cells and Impact on Exciton Diffusion Length Measurements," W.A. Luhman and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Func. Mater. 21, 764 (2011).  (Link to Adv. Func. Mater.)

25. "Thermally activated population of microcavity polariton states under optical and electrical excitation," G.H. Lodden and R.J. Holmes, Phys. Rev. B 83, 075301 (2011). (Link to PRB)

2010

24. "Graded donor-acceptor heterojunctions for efficient organic photovoltaic cells," R. Pandey and R.J. Holmes, Adv. Mater. 22, 5301 (2010). (Link to Adv. Mater.)

23. "Electrical excitation of microcavity polaritons by radiative pumping from a weakly coupled organic semiconductor," G.H. Lodden and R.J. Holmes, Phys. Rev. B 82, 125317 (2010). (Link to PRB)

22.  "Organic photovoltaic cells based on continuously graded donor-acceptor heterojunctions - Invited," R. Pandey and R.J. Holmes,  IEEE J.  Sel. Top. Quant. 16, 1537 (2010). (Link to IEEE)

21. "Highly efficient, single-layer organic light-emitting devices based on a graded-composition emissive layer," N.C. Erickson and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 083308 (2010). Selected for August 2010 issue of APL: Organic Electronics and Photonics. (Link to APL)

20. "Hybrid silicon nanocrystal-organic light-emitting devices for infrared electroluminescence," K.-Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U.R. Kortshagen, and R.J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 10, 1154 (2010). (Link to Nano Lett.)

2009

19. "Enhanced exciton diffusion in an organic photovoltaic cell by energy transfer using a phosphorescent sensitizer," W.A. Luhman and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153304 (2009). (Link to APL)

2008

18. "Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells," N.C. Lindquist, W.A. Luhman, S.-H. Oh and R.J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123308 (2008). (Link to APL) - Selected for the October 6, 2008 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology

2007

17. “Nanowire lasers go organic,” (News and views) R.J. Holmes, Nature Nanotech. 2, 141 (2007).
 
16. “Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic materials,” (Review) R.J. Holmes and S.R. Forrest, Org. Electron. 8, 77, (2007).

2006

15. “Strong coupling and hybridization of Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons in an organic-inorganic optical microcavity,” R.J. Holmes, S. Kena-Cohen, V.M. Menon and S.R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 74, 235211 (2006).
 
14. “Reduced geminate recombination in iridium-based electrophosphorescent materials,” R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, T. Sajoto, A. Tamayo, P.I. Djurovich, and M.E. Thompson, Org. Electron. 7, 163 (2006).
 
13. “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light emitting devices,” H. Kanno, R.J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S.R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 18, 339 (2006).
 
12. “High mobility nanocrystalline silicon transistors on clear plastic substrates,” A.Z. Kattamis, R.J. Holmes, I.-C. Cheng, K. Long, J.C. Sturm, S.R. Forrest, and S. Wagner, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 27, 49 (2006).

2005

11. “Saturated, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence using a fluorine-free emitter,” R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, T. Sajoto, A. Tamayo, P.I. Djurovich, M.E. Thompson, J. Brooks, Y.-J. Tung, B.W. D’Andrade, M.S. Weaver, R.C. Kwong and J.J. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243507 (2005).
 
10. “Organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic cells employing thick tris(acetylacetonato) ruthenium(III) exciton blocking layers,” B.P.Rand, J. Li, J. Xue, R.J. Holmes, M.E. Thompson and S.R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 17, 2714 (2005).
 
9. “Blue and near-UV phosphorescence from iridium complexes with cyclometalated pyrazolyl or N-heterocyclic carbene ligands,” T. Sajoto, P.I. Djurovich, A.Tamayo, M. Yousufuddin, R. Bau, M.E. Thompson, R.J. Holmes and S.R. Forrest, Inorg. Chem. 44, 7992 (2005).
 
8. “Exciton-photon coupling in organic materials with large intersystem crossing rates and strong excited-state molecular relaxation,” R.J. Holmes and S.R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235203 (2005).

2004

7. “Strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton hybridization in a thermally evaporated polycrystalline film of an organic small molecule,” R.J. Holmes and S.R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 186404 (2004).
 
6. “Ultrahigh energy gap hosts in deep blue organic electrophosphorescent devices,” X. Ren, J. Li, R.J. Holmes, P.I. Djurovich, S.R. Forrest and M.E. Thompson, Chem. Mater. 16, 4743 (2004).
 
5. “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer,” B.W. D’Andrade, R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).

2003

4. “Efficient, deep blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” R.J. Holmes, B.W. D’Andrade, S.R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, M.E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3818 (2003).
 
3. “Excitonic singlet-triplet ratios in molecular and polymeric organic materials,” M. Segal, M.A. Baldo, R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, Z.G. Soos, Phys. Rev. B 68, 075211 (2003).
 
2. “Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” R.J. Holmes, Y.-J. Tung, R.C. Kwong, J.J. Brown, S. Garon, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).

2002

1. “Prospects for electrically pumped organic lasers,” M.A. Baldo, R.J. Holmes, S.R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035321 (2002).